Observation Items of Mongolian Governmental Network for Meteorology and Hydrology

1. Meteo. Station program:
Wind speed and direction, air temperature (by thermometer and also recorder), cloudiness (type, height and coverage), soil surface and deep ground temperature, air pressure, humidity (by wet- and dry-bulb thermometers), rainfall amount, snow depth are main components of the meteo.stations. In addition, radiation, dust fall, rainfall intensity in few stations. Also in some stations conduct soil moisture, snow density in decade base. Concerning, vegetation observation at meteo.stations, there are two types of observation fenced and unfenced (wild pasture including grazing activities). Vegetation observation elements as follow: type, phenology (height), biomass, damage.
2. Meteo.post program:
Wind speed and direction, air temperature (only by thermometer), humidity (in some posts), cloudiness, soil surface temperature, rainfall amount, snow depth. In some post , snow density also on decade base.
3. Hydrological post:
Water level, discharge, water temperature, ice depth, ice phenomena are main components of the hydrological post. In some stations conduct turbidity, channel slope, spring, air temperature, rainfall amount. Chemical and biological sampling and water evaporation (within meteo.station's program)
Depending on location, instrument's and manpower availability, special purpose etc program of stations and post are may differ. Some may not measure some elements or some could have some other additional components etc.
(Summarized by Mr. D. Oyunbaatar, Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Mongolia)